As a matter of policy, we are trying to make as many of the products we sell ourselves and have invested about $3 million dollars in machining and testing equipment over the last 3 years to help us achieve this objective. The tariffs and increasing political tensions between the U.S. and China has us moving to suppliers in other countries as much as is practical. Our galvanized and stainless steel cable now comes from Thailand and South Korea, and much of our stainless steel rigging hardware is also being produced in Thailand. We also are adding more domestically produced products to our website and will try to offer them at the most competitive prices we can.
Information contained in this catalog is subject to change; all weights and dimensions are approximate. Ratings are stated in short tons (2,000 lbs.) or pounds. All dimensions are in inches; all weights are in pounds, unless stated otherwise.reference
Working Load Limit
The Working Load Limit is the maximum load which should ever be applied to the product, even when the product is new and when the load is uniformly applied - straight line pull only. Avoid side loading. All catalog ratings are based upon usual environmental conditions and consideration must be given to unusual conditions such as extreme high or low temperatures, chemical solutions or vapors, prolonged immersion in salt water, etc. Such conditions or high-risk applications may necessitate reducing the Working Load Limit.reference
Proof Test Load (Proof Load)
The term "Proof Test" designates a quality control test applied to the product for the sole purpose of detecting defects in material or manufacture. The Proof Test Load (usually twice the Working Load Limit) is the load which the product withstood without deformation when new and under laboratory test conditions. A constantly increasing force is applied in direct line to the product at a uniform rate of speed on a standard pull testing machine.
The Proof Test Load does not mean the Working Load Limit should ever be exceeded.reference
Design Factor (sometimes referred to as safety factor)
An industry term usually computed by dividing the catalog Breaking Strength by the catalog Working Load Limit and generally expressed as a ratio. For example: 5 to 1.reference
A load resulting from rapid change of movement, such as impacting, jerking or swinging of a static load is referred to as shock load. Sudden release of tension is another form of shock loading. Shock loads are generally significantly greater than static loads. Any shock loading must be considered when selecting the item for use in a system.
Avoid shock loads as they may exceed the Working Load Limit.
Termination efficiency for buttons depends on size, and swaging equipment. Testing is required before use in critical applications.
Wire Rope Clips: 80%
Malleable cast iron clips should only be used in non-critical applications. ASME, OSHA, and ASTM recommend only forged clips for critical applications.
What is Stainless Steel?
"Stainless Steel" is the general name for a large family of alloy steels that contain at least 10.5% chromium as part of their composition. At and above this level of chromium, a complex chrome-oxide surface layer forms that prevents further oxygen atoms from penetrating into the steel and thus protects the iron in the matrix from rusting. This layer is what makes the steel "stainless." Higher levels of chromium and the addition of other alloying elements such as molybdenum and nickel enhance this protective barrier and further improve the corrosion resistance of the stainless steel. There are many different types of stainless, but for rigging products, the most commonly used are the 300 series stainless steels (type 304 & type 316) - also known as the austenitic stainless steels.
What is The Difference Between Type 304 and Type 316 Stainless Steel?
316 stainless steel has molybdenum added to its alloy content during production. Molybdenum provides an even higher degree of corrosion resistance than 304 stainless steel. This is an advantage for objects that require resistance to extreme environmental conditions such as salt water, de-icing salts, brine solutions, or other chemical forms of chemical exposure. In laboratory and pharmaceutical settings, 316 stainless steel excels in resistance to acids, bromides, and iodides at high temperature.
It is difficult to tell the difference between 304 and 316 stainless steel by simply looking at the two. They both offer the same polished, chromed, grained, colored, or blasted appearance but 316 stainless steel costs more due to its enhanced chemical and production properties.
Because it is Stainless Steel, Doesn't That Mean it is Also Non-Magnetic?
Not necessarily so. In fact, Type 304ss often has a detectable magnetic draw. And it is possible for Type 316ss to have a very slight magnetic draw.
The reason for this is fairly technical, but it has to do with the amount of chromium in the alloy and the process in which the part was made. Type 304ss has less chromium than Type 316ss, and it is the chromium that affects the microstructure of the surface of the steel. Because Type 316ss has more nickel in it and the presence of this additional nickel serves to enhance the affect of the chromium in the steel, Type 316ss will have little to no detectable magnetic draw.
What typically can create a magnetic draw is cold working or welding of the metal. Cold working in the form of bending, forming or machining can cause a change in the microstructure on the surface of the metal and reduce the effect of the chromium layer that exists on the surface. And again, because Type 304ss has less nickel than Type 316ss, it is more susceptible to developing a degree of magnetism.
How Can "Stainless Steel" Rust?
Although stainless steel is much more resistant to corrosion than ordinary carbon or alloy steels, in some circumstances it can corrode. It is "stainless" not "stain-impossible."
Type 304ss is more susceptible to forming rust than Type 316ss. This is due to the presence of higher levels of both nickel and molybdenum. Stamping, forming and welding can disrupt the surface microstructure of stainless steel and this is more so the case for Type 304ss.
Salt water, salt in the air and chemicals can attack Type 304ss causing pitting to occur. The additional nickel and molybdenum in Type 316ss make it less likely for corrosion to occur when exposed to these same elements.
Galvanic corrosion can occur when stainless comes into contact with dissimilar metals when an electrolyte, water or other solution is present.
This is the term used throughout the catalog. There are, however, other terms used in the industry which are interchangeable with the term Working Load Limit. These are: WLL, SWL, Safe Working Load, Rated Load Value, Resulting Safe Working Load, and Rated Capacity.
Never Exceed the Working Load Limit
The Working Load Limit is the maximum load which should ever be applied to a product, even when the product is new and when the load is uniformly applied - straight line pull only. Avoid side loading. All catalog ratings are based upon usual environmental conditions and consideration must be given to unusual conditions such as extreme high or low temperatures, chemical solutions or vapors, prolonged immersion in salt water, etc. Such conditions or high-risk applications may necessitate reducing the Working Load Limit.
Working Load Limit will not apply if product has been welded or otherwise modified. It should also be noted that it is the ultimate responsibility of the end user to determine a Working Load Limit for each application.
Make certain that components such as hooks, links or shackles, etc. used with wire rope (or chain or cordage) are of suitable material size and strength to provide adequate safety protection. Attachments must be properly installed and must have a Working Load Limit at least equal to the product with which they are used.
Remember: Any chain is only as strong as its weakest link.
Keep out from under a raised load. Take notice of the recommendation from the National Safety Council Accident Prevention Manual concerning all lifting operations:
"All employees working on cranes or hoists or assisting in hooking or arranging a load should be instructed to keep out from under the load. From a safety standpoint, one factor is paramount: Conduct all lifting operations in such a manner that if there were an equipment failure, no personnel would be injured. This means keep out from under a raised load and keep out of line of force of any load."
Do not operate a load over people. Do not ride on loads.
Avoid impacting, jerking or swinging of load as the Working Load Limit could be exceeded and the Working Load Limit will not apply. A shock load is generally significantly greater than the static load. Avoid shock loads.
REMEMBER: ANY PRODUCT WILL BREAK IF ABUSED, MISUSED, OVERUSED OR NOT MAINTAINED PROPERLY.
Such breaks can cause loads to fail or swing out of control, possibly resulting in serious injury or death as well as major property damage.
- Never exceed the Working Load Limit (WLL).
- Match components properly.
- Keep out from under a raised load.
- Avoid shock loads.
- Inspect products regularly.
Do not use breaking strength (breaking load) as a criterion for service or design purposes. Refer to the Working Load Limit instead.
Breaking Strength is the average force at which the product, in the condition it would leave the factory, has been found by representative testing to break, when a constantly increasing force is applied in direct line to the product at a uniform rate of speed on a standard pull testing machine. Proof testing to twice the Working Load Limit does not apply to hand-spliced slings.
Remember: Breaking Strengths, when published, were obtained under controlled laboratory conditions. Listing of the Breaking Strength does not mean the Working Load Limit should ever be exceeded.
Inspect products regularly for visible damage, cracks, wear, elongation, rust, etc. Protect all products from corrosion. The need for periodic inspections cannot be overemphasized. No product can keep operating at its rated capacity indefinitely. Periodic inspections help determine when to replace a product and reduce rigging hazards. Keep inspection records to help pinpoint problems and to ensure periodic inspection intervals.
Due to the diversity of the products and uses to which they can be put, it would be counterproductive to make blanket recommendations for inspection procedures and frequency. Best results will be achieved when qualified personnel base their decisions on information from rigging and engineering manuals and on experience from actual use in the field.
Frequency of inspection will depend on environmental conditions, application, storage or product prior to use, frequency of use, etc. When in doubt, inspect products prior to each use. Carefully check each item for wear, deformation, cracks or elongation - a sure sign of imminent failure. Immediately withdraw such items from service.
Rust damage is another potential hazard. When in doubt about the extent of corrosion or other damage, withdraw the items from service.
Destroy, rather than discard, items that have been judged defective. They might be used again by someone not aware of the hazard involved.